What is a hormone and how does it effect on female physiology?

Before interpreting hormones, we must first understand the medical term “endocrine system” .

The endocrine system affects many physiological reactions (caterpillars become butterflies, girls become women…), including metabolism, fluid balance, growth, development, and reproduction.

The endocrine system, which is derived from the “endocrine gland” , can be used to produce secretory hormones that can be released directly into the bloodstream or transported to target cells and combined with specific receptors to regulate various reactions through the chemical molecules of hormones.

What effect does female hormone have on female physiology?

  1. Estrogen: regulates the maturation of the reproductive organs during puberty, the development of secondary sexual characteristics (eg breast, pelvic widening, muscle and fat distribution), stimulation of endometrial thickening and the formation of new blood vessels and glands. In addition, estrogen, hypothalamic and pituitary gland together regulate the menstrual cycle.
  2. Follicle stimulating hormone: synthesized by the anterior pituitary gland to regulate the development, growth and genital maturation of the body. Follicle stimulating hormone and lutein have synergistic effects in regulating reproduction.
  3. Lutein: As a precursor of estrogen, androgen, and adrenal cortex, it is mainly synthesized in the ovary, testis, and adrenal glands. It is released and synthesized in large quantities during the pregnancy.
  4. Prolactin: The main function is to stimulate the breast to produce milk.
  5. Oxytocin: A hormone that is very important for women to produce. In two cases, it will be released in large quantities:  (1) The cervix and uterus are inflated during childbirth.  (2) The nipple is stimulated to accelerate production and breastfeeding.
  6. Human fetal prolactin: promotes auxin and insulin secretion, while reducing the use of insulin in peripheral tissues, and concentrates the sugar for fetal utilization.  (1) Stimulate the growth of breast tissue, milk protein and lactoglobulin production.


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